Thermal induction of parthenogenesis (also called thermal parthenogenesis) in silkworms is an important technique that has been used in artificial insemination expansion of hybridization transgenesis and sericultural production; however the exact mechanisms of this induction remain unclear. that the maturation rate of AL eggs was slower than PL eggs. Some DEGs related to reactive oxygen species removal DNA repair and heat shock response were differentially expressed between the two lines such as and is a holometabolous lepidopteran insect that has been raised for the purpose of silk production for more than 5 0 years. In most cases females give birth to offspring by mating; however a few exceptions are reproduced by parthenogenesis without needing a mate . Facultative parthenogenesis in was observed as early as the 18th century and the artificial induction of parthenogenesis was first observed in 1847 by Boursier from female silkworms maintained under sun exposure and then Rabbit Polyclonal to EFNA1. by Tichomirov in unfertilized eggs treated with sulfuric acid in 1886  . Many experimental treatments have since been proven to be effective in inducing parthenogenesis including chemicals oxygenation electric pulses mechanical wrapping centrifugation and cooling  . In particular Astaurov (1940) induced silkworm thermal parthenogenesis by exact spatiotemporal temperatures activation (46°C 18 min) inside a drinking water shower of unfertilized eggs . By constant CP-466722 subculture using an optimized edition of Astaurov’s hot-water induction technique the parthenogenetic capability of silkworms could be steadily increased resulting in clones (parthenogenetic lines (PLs)) with high pigmentation price high hatching price high survival price and rare irregular offspring in a way that silkworms could be reproduced by parthenogenesis as quickly as bisexual breeds reproduce by fertilization  . Certain PLs taken care of in our lab show the useful implication of price reduced amount of male-only mating . Some unique cross mixtures of silkworm (PLs in conjunction with the sex-linked well balanced lethal strains) which create all-male cross progeny have developed CP-466722 a new kind of sericulture world-wide. The technique of rearing just male silkworms in rural areas and rearing even more feminine silkworms in egg-producing channels is vital to boost the produce and quality of cocoon silk also to reduce the creation costs of male silkworm cross eggs. Silkworm parthenogenesis study has mainly centered on the induction technique and building of PLs with few research for the system . Astaurov’s hot-water induction technique is quite effective to stimulate silkworm parthenogenesis; its molecular system remains to be unclear however. In silkworm thermal parthenogenesis all parthenogenetic progeny are females using their maternal genotype becoming repeated or cloned theoretically . CP-466722 Although parthenogenetic offspring duplicate the maternal genotype during thermal parthenogenetic induction variants in CP-466722 parthenogenetic capability (pigmentation price hatching rate success rate and CP-466722 irregular rate) happen in the inductive procedure and the mechanism is poorly comprehended. The parthenogenetic ability of silkworms can increase after long-term selection. It is hypothesized that this selected eggs’ transcriptomes would differ from those of the non-selected eggs. Characterization of the general differences between stable PL and its original parent the amphigenetic line (AL) could help to explain the differences in parthenogenetic ability between them. To this end we employed RNA-seq to characterize the transcriptome differences between PL and AL before and after thermal induction. We observed that a number of transcripts were differentially regulated between the two lines at each time interval. The potential effects of these differences in egg gene expression around the differences in parthenogenetic ability are discussed. These findings are very important to understand the intracellular signaling mechanisms of silkworm thermal parthenogenesis. Methods Egg sampling and hot-water induction The silkworm strains Wu 14 (PL) and 54A (AL) maintained in the Sericultural Research Institute of Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences were used in this study. 54A is an important Japanese AL that reproduces by mating from generation to generation. Wu 14 is usually a stable PL that reproduces by parthenogenetic induction and was obtained from female.