Several findings claim that there may be an overlap of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody encephalitis with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders or acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like demyelination. response was discussed. This case appears to add evidence to the hypothesis of an overlap between anti-NMDAR antibody encephalitis and other inflammatory central nervous system diseases. Background In anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody encephalitis, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shows inflammatory changes in most patients whereas brain MRI shows abnormalities in less than 50% of patients.1 Generally, an intrathecal synthesis of NMDAR IgG is detected.2 Although often transient, white matter lesions have been observed in anti-NMDAR antibody encephalitis.3 Recently, even extensive and clinically relevant demyelination has been described. In the majority of these AG-1024 patients, antibodies against either aquaporin 4 (AQP4) or myelin oligendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) were detected, suggesting an overlap of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum or acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like demyelination with anti-NMDAR antibody encephalitis.4 5 An association of NMDAR antibody encephalitis with multiple sclerosis (MS) was not found, despite MS being by far the most common demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) disorder. MS is associated with intrathecal production of IgG directed against multiple infectious agents, often measles, rubella and varicella zoster (MRZ).6 The so-called MRZ reaction has been claimed to predict MS with a high degree of specificity.7 We present a case of a patient with anti-NMDAR antibody encephalitis with CSF findings suggesting a MS-like immune response. We believe that this case adds a new aspect to the accumulating evidence indicating a possible overlap between NMDAR antibody encephalitis and demyelinating diseases. Case presentation A 34-year-old man was brought to our psychiatric ward by the police following aggressive and disorganised behaviour in public. The patients colleagues reported that behavioural problems (primarily impulsivity, aggressiveness and hostility) had been present for approximately 1?week. Clinically, the patient had a dysphoric mania with psychotic symptoms (logorrhoea, increased drive with violent outbursts, agitation, accelerated and incoherent considering partially, paranoid ideation with hyper-religiosity and small persecutory delusion, dysphoric disposition and disturbed sleepCwake routine with reduced have to sleep). From somewhat elevated distractibility and decreased interest/focus Aside, there is no cognitive or mnestic dysfunction. The physical (including neurological) evaluation was AG-1024 completely regular. The patients genealogy was inconspicuous in regards to to psychiatric or neurological disorders. Pharmacotherapy with olanzapine (20?mg/time) and lorazepam (up to 8?mg/time) was established leading to reduced amount of impulsivity, agitation and aggressiveness, whereas psychotic symptoms persisted. An MRI of the mind (performed around 9?times after starting point of symptoms) demonstrated a T2-hyperintensive light matter lesion immediately next to the anterior horn from the still left lateral ventricle and a small hippocampal asymmetry (still left>best); gadolinium cannot be applied because of the sufferers behavioural disturbance. Evaluation from the CSF (around 11?times after starting point of clinical symptoms) showed a lymphocytic pleocytosis (33 leucocytes/L (regular <5/L), 97% lymphocytes, 2% monocytes, 1% plasma cells), a mild bloodCCSF hurdle dysfunction (total proteins 584?mg/mL, CSF/serum albumin proportion 7.210C3, regular <6.310C3) and intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis (IgG 29%, IgM 74%, isolated oligoclonal IgG rings in the CSF). Therefore, treatment with methylprednisolone (500?mg each day intravenously for five times), ceftriaxone (2?g intravenously) and aciclovir (750?mg three times per day intravenously) was initiated and the patient was transferred to the department of neurology. Further work up of the CSF revealed increased CSF/serum antibody indices for both VZV and rubella (6.1 and 1.7, respectively, normal 1.4) indicating an autoimmune origin of the inflammatory CSF changes. CSF CXCL13 was moderately increased (65?pg/mL, normal 10?pg/mL) within a range also seen in other autoimmune diseases, such as MS.8 Anti-NMDAR IgG was positive in AG-1024 serum and CSF at equal titres of 1 1:100, indicating intrathecal synthesis of anti-NMDAR IgG. Anti-AQP4 and anti-MOG antibodies (both measured by a cell-based assay)4 in serum were negative (blood specimen taken approximately 11?days after symptom onset). Subsequently, the antiviral and antibiotic therapy was stopped. Steroid treatment was reduced MUC16 to oral prednisolone 100?mg once daily and then tapered out. The patient received 30?g of immunoglobulins intravenously on five consecutive days. A second MRI, performed after treatment, provided no further information (application of gadolinium was planned; however, due to the patients behavioural abnormalities the examination had to be stopped). Repeat CSF analysis (performed 23?times after the initial lumbar puncture) showed 8 leucocytes/L; CSF CXCL13 got dropped below recognition level (<7.8?pg/mL). No abnormalities had been uncovered with whole-body F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) CT, CT from the thorax and abdominal, and sonography from the testicles. Serum -fetoprotein and -individual chorionic gonadotropin had been negative. The individual was discovered to have problems with hepatitis C, genotype 3a, but a regards to the existing affection had not been apparent. Result and.