Continuous energy conversion is usually controlled by reduction-oxidation (redox) processes. mice.

Continuous energy conversion is usually controlled by reduction-oxidation (redox) processes. mice. Increases in the NAD+/NADH ratio by TEMPOL ameliorated the metabolic imbalance when combined with a dietary intervention changing from a high-fat diet to a normal diet. Plasma levels of the superoxide marker dihydroethidium were higher in mice receiving the dietary intervention compared with a control diet but were normalized with TEMPOL consumption. These findings provide novel insights into redox regulation in obesity. and salvage pathways [7] [8]; modulation of enzymes that consume NAD+ such as poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase and CD38 [9] [10]; and providing Rabbit Polyclonal to TNF Receptor I. substrates of NADH:quinone oxidoreductase [11]. These studies showed that increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio including by promoting NADH oxidation is critical to accelerating energy metabolism. In obese mice the NAD+/NADH ratio was lower than in slim mice [12] further suggesting that increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio would be necessary for changing metabolic state to maintain homeostasis. In contrast in adipose tissue and plasma oxidative stress and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is usually greater in obese mice than in slim mice [13]. To decrease oxidative stress and its resulting tissue damage administration of antioxidants has been considered [14]. Both methods have been shown to attenuate disease symptoms yet they are completely contradictory. While one entails increasing oxidation from NADH to NAD+ the other is a process involving reduction for example to decrease ROS levels. We hypothesized that obesity leads to a growing imbalance between reduction-oxidation (redox) status in the body and that correction of this imbalance would be beneficial. Here we proposed a strategy to increase the NAD+/NADH ratio and decrease ROS production. To regulate redox status in the body we focused on a small redox-cycling nitroxide antioxidant the 4-hydroxy-2 2 6 6 (TEMPOL). This molecule has been reported to have two redox potential [15]. In the oxidation process an oxoammonium cation AP24534 AP24534 was generated by the diffusion-controlled reaction of superoxide or hydroxyl radical with the aminoxyl group of TEMPOL and then was reduced by NADH to the hydroxylamine [15] [16]. During these reactions TEMPOL can both reduce ROS and oxidize NADH to NAD+. In the reduction process TEMPOL was straight reduced towards the matching hydroxylamine by ascorbic acidity resulting in development from the oxidation item dehydroascorbic acidity (DHA) [17]. In cases like this DHA can raise the NAD+ focus with a redox bicycling system made up of glutathione (GSH) NADPH and NADH [18]. We as a result assumed that TEMPOL could indirectly generate NAD+ by an NADH oxidation procedure AP24534 via two different pathways regarding either ROS scavenging or the AsA-GSH redox bicycling system (Fig. AP24534 1A). Fig. 1 TEMPOL increased the NAD+/NADH ratio via ROS scavenging and the redox cycling system for 15?min at 4?°C and stored at ?80?°C until analysis. Plasma cholesterol levels were decided using a commercially available assay kit. 3.3 Measurement of hepatic triglyceride levels Liver tissue was homogenized (1:8 w-v) in a mixture of chloroform and methanol (2:1). Lipid extracts were dried and dissolved in 5% Triton X-100 in isopropanol. Hepatic triglyceride levels were decided using a commercially available assay kit. 3.4 DHE staining To estimate oxidative stress DHE staining was performed as previously explained with minor modifications [22]. Briefly mice were intravenously administered 0.3?mL DHE (2.5?mg/mL in PBS) under isoflurane AP24534 anesthesia. Two hours later mice were anesthetized with pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight i.p.). Blood was collected from your substandard vena cava and plasma fluorescence was measured in a fluorescence reader (MTP-810Lab Corona Electric Co. Ltd.) at excitation and emission wavelengths of 518?nm and 605?nm respectively. Livers were removed frozen immediately in an OCT compound (Tissue-Tech II; Sakura Fine Chemical Tokyo Japan) and sectioned at a thickness of 10 μm on a cryostat (Sakura Finetek Japan Co. Ltd. Tokyo Japan). Nuclear staining was performed with DAPI (Invitrogen Carlsbad CA USA) in a dark chamber. A TE2000-U Fluorescence Microscope.