The worldwide outbreaks from the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the last years demonstrated the need for studies to screen antivirals against CHIKV

The worldwide outbreaks from the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the last years demonstrated the need for studies to screen antivirals against CHIKV. hepatitis C, and influenza. This review seeks to conclude the natural compounds that have shown antiviral activity against chikungunya computer virus in vitro. sp. The 1st case of chikungunya fever was reported in 1952 in Tanzania [1]. In February 2005, a major outbreak of chikungunya occurred on the islands of the Indian Ocean [2]. A large number of instances occurred in Europe and India in 2006 and 2007, respectively [2]. Several other countries in Southeast Asia were also affected [3]. In December 2013, autochthonous TCL1B instances were confirmed in the People from france part of the Caribbean island of St Maarten [4]. Since then, local transmission has been Hycamtin reversible enzyme inhibition confirmed in over 60 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. In 2014, more than 1 million suspected instances were reported in the Americas, with 1,379,788 suspected instances and 191 deaths in the Caribbean islands, Latin American countries, and the United States of America (USA) [5]. Canada, Mexico, and USA have also recorded imported instances. The countries reporting the most instances were Brazil (265,000 suspected instances), and Bolivia and Colombia (19,000 suspected instances each) [6]. The 1st autochthonous transmission Hycamtin reversible enzyme inhibition of chikungunya reported in Argentina occurred in 2016 following an outbreak of more than 1000 suspected instances [7]. In the African region, Kenya reported an outbreak of chikungunya resulting in more than 1700 suspected instances. In 2017, Pakistan continues to respond to an outbreak which started in 2016 [8]. These computer virus outbreaks have raised concerns on studies of CHIKV epidemiology and antiviral study [9]. CHIKV belongs to the Alphavirus genus and the family. It is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (12 kb in length) computer virus, with an enveloped icosahedral capsid [10]. The computer virus lifecycle starts via the attachment of the viral glycoproteins to the cell membrane receptors, mainly to MXRA8 [11,12] but also to prohibitin (PHB) [13], phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) [14], and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) [15] receptors in mammalian and to ATP synthase in mosquito cells [16], forming a pore. Then, a computer virus capsid is definitely released into the cytoplasm, where the replication process takes place. Viral genome is definitely uncoated and directly translated into nonstructural (NS) protein nP1C4. The NS proteins type the viral replicase complicated that catalyzes the formation of a poor strand, a template to synthesize the full-length positive feeling genome, as well as the subgenomic mRNA. The subgenomic mRNA is normally translated within a polyprotein, which is normally cleaved to create the structural proteins C, E3, E2, 6k, and E1, accompanied by the set up from the viral elements and trojan release (Amount 1) [17,18]. Open up in another window Amount 1 Schematic representation of chikungunya trojan (CHIKV) replication routine: Natural substances with antiviral activity against CHIKV are indicated in each stage of trojan replication routine (entrance, replication, and discharge). Chikungunya fever is normally characterized by strong fever, arthralgia, backache, headache, and fatigue. In some cases, cutaneous manifestation and neurological complications can occur [19,20]. There is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized specific antiviral or vaccine against CHIKV. Consequently, the treatment of infected patients is based on palliative care, using analgesics for pain and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce arthralgia in chronic infections [10]. Due to the lack of efficient anti-CHIKV therapy, researches have been developed to identify fresh drug candidates for the future Hycamtin reversible enzyme inhibition treatment of chikungunya fever [21]. Among them, antiviral research based on natural molecules is definitely a potential approach. Many natural compounds showed antiviral activity against a variety of human viruses such as dengue (DENV) [22,23,24,25], yellow fever (YFV) [25,26,27], hepatitis C (HCV) [28,29,30,31,32], influenza [33,34], and zika (ZIKV) [33,35,36]. Here, we aim to summarize the natural compounds previously explained to possess anti-CHIKV activity (Table 1). Table 1 Natural compounds with antiviral Hycamtin reversible enzyme inhibition activity against CHIKV. and Renilla luciferase (markers or the full-length.